AN DƯƠNG VƯƠNG (257 BC-179 BC, 78 sano)

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     AN DƯƠNG VƯƠNG (257 BC-179 BC, 78 sano jir) wuxuu ahaa boqorka iyo kan kaliya ee xukuma boqortooyada ạu Lạc, dowlad dhaqameed qadiim ah oo xudun u ahayd Red River Delta. Isagoo ah hogaamiyaha Qabiilooyinka Âu Việt, kii ugu dambeeyay ayuu ka adkaaday Hùng boqorka oo ka mid ah gobolka Văn Lang oo mideysay dadkeeda - oo loo yaqaan Lạc Việt - dadkiisa ah Ệu Việt. Dương Vương wuu cararay oo uu isdilay dagaalka kadib Ciidamada Nanyue sanadki 179 Ciise.

biography

Asalka

       Tdadkii hore ee shaxdani waa "daruuro leh”Maaddaama macluumaadka keliya ee ay bixiyaan akoonnada qorani ay yihiin magaciisa, kaas oo u muuqda inuu la wadaagayo isaga gobolka qadiimiga ah ee Shu waxa hadda jira Sichuan, ku guuleystey Dawladdii Qin sanadki 316 Ciise.1,2 Tani sidoo kale waxay ahayd aragtida dhaqameed ee Chinese iyo Taariikhyahanada Vietnamese. Si kastaba ha noqotee, waxaa jira xoogaa dhibaatooyin ah oo ku jira aqbalida aragtidan dhaqameed.3 Taariikho badan oo ay ka mid yihiin Diiwaanada Dhulalka Dibadda ee gobolka Jiao,4 Ệi Việt sử lược, Ệi Việt sử ký toàn thư sheegay in uu ahaa Shu amiir (ms. “蜀 王 子”, macno ahaan: “ina Shuu boqorkii“, Laakiin way awoodi kari waayeen inay si sax ah u sharxaan asalkiisa. Taariikhyahannadii dambe waxay lahaayeen aragti dheeri ah. Gudaha Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, qorayaashu waxay muujiyeen shaki ku saabsan King An Dương Vương asalkiisa, sheegashada waxay ahayd wax aan macquul aheyn a Shu amiir si looga gudbo kumanaan mayl, iyada oo loo marayo kaymo, gobollo badan si loo duulo Văn Lang.5 Sannadkii 1963, dhaqan afka ah oo ah Dad Táy in Sida dhaadheer oo cinwaankeedu yahay "Cẩu chủa cheng vùa”Ayaa la duubay. 1,6 Marka loo eego koontadan, dhamaadka Boqortooyada Hàng Bàng, waxaa jirtay boqortooyo la yiraahdo Nam Cương (shidayxadka koonfur“) Ee casriga ah Sida dhaadheer iyo Guangxi.1 Waxay ka koobnayd 10 gobol, oo uu boqorku degganaa gobolka dhexe (Gobolka Cao Bằng ee maantaSagaalka gobol ee kale waxay ka talin jireen sagaal sayid.7 Inkastoo King An Dương Vương aabihiis (Thục Chế 制) wuu dhintay, weli wuu ilmo ahaa; sidaas oo ay tahay, garashadiisu waxay u saamaxday inuu sii haysto carshiga madaxdiina oo dhan way is dhiibeen Nam Cương noqday oo aad iyo aad u xoog badan intii Văn Lang daciif noqday.1,6 Kadib, wuu ku soo duulay Văn Lang waxayna aasaaseen gobolka U Lạc. Sheekada waxaa taageeraya astaamo badan, waxyaabo xusuus ah iyo magacyo meel ku yaal Gobolka Cao Bằng. Qiyaasta asal ahaan asal ahaan ka soo jeeda deegaanka ayaa sidoo kale ka muuqatay sheekooyin kala duwan oo sheekooyin ah, diiwaan gelinno, cibaado iyo xusuus dad.

Aasaaska Âu Lạc

      Pcibaado leh Xukunka Shiinaha gobolka, waqooyiga iyo waqooyiga-dhexe ee Vietnam ayaa lagu xukumay Boqorrada Lạc (Boqorrada Hùng) oo ay u adeegeen Lạc hầu iyo Lạc tướng.8 Qiyaastii 257 BCE, waxay ku biireen Âu Việt gobolka Nam Cương, oo degenaa qaybta koonfureed ee Wabiga Zuo, saxanka bullaacadaha ee Wabiga iyo aagga kore ee Lô River, Gâm Wabiga, Iyo Wabiga Cầu.9,10 Hogaamiyaha Ệu Việt, THỤC PHÁN, ayaa afgembiyay kii ugu dambeeyay Boqorrada Hùng, wuxuuna mideeyay labada boqortooyo magaca U Lạc, Isaga oo is naadinaya King An Dương (Mid Daran).1

Dhismaha Cổ Loa Citadel

     King AN DƯƠNG ayaa aasaasay caasimada Âu Lạc in Tây Vu, halkaasoo laga dhisay qalcad dhufays leh, taarikhduna u taqaano Cổ Loa.11 Waxay ahayd xaruntii siyaasadeed ee ugu horeysay ee Ilbaxnimadii Fiyetnaam xilligii Siniiqa ka hor,12 oo leh xayndaab dusha sare ah oo dhererkiisu yahay 600 hektar,13,14 mid ka mid ah goobihii ugu horreeyay ee dejinta taariikhda Southeast Asia.15 Magaca “Cổ Loa”Waa Sino-Fiyatnaamiis Akhrinta 古 螺 ( Shiine Dhexe (ZS) kuoX-luɑ > Cajabta Shiinaha: Gǔ Luó), macno ahaan "Conch qadiim ah“. Sida laga soo xigtay Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư, qalcaddu waxay u egtahay qafis,16 oo ka tarjumeysa qaab dhismeedka lakabyada badan leh ee qalcadda leh lebbiska iyo moatsada isku urursan.17

       Tdhacdooyinkii la xiriiray dhismaha gurigan qallooc-qaabeeya ayaa lagu xasuustaa halyeeygii qoolleyda dahabka ah. Sida ku xusan halyeeygan, markii qalcadda la dhisayay, dhammaan shaqooyinka maalintii la qabtay ayaa si layaab leh habeenki u baabi'iyay koox jinni ah oo doonayay inay u aargudaan wiilkii boqorkii hore.18 Ruuxyada maxalliga ah waxaa hoggaaminayay kun-sano jir digaag cad oo dul fadhiistay meel u dhow Mount Tam Đảo. Ka dib boqorkii wuxuu foox shiday, tukaday, wuxuuna soo saaray ilaahyadii si ay isaga u caawiyaan. Isaga oo ka jawaabaya codsigiisa, diir weyn oo dahabi ah ayaa si lama filaan ah uga soo baxay biyaha, wuxuu ka adkaaday digaaggii caddaa, wuuna ilaaliyey ilaa ay ka dhammaysteen qalcaddii. Markii uu dhoofay, wuxuu siiyay mid ka mid ah cidiyihiisa oo wuxuu faray Boqorka inuu u isticmaalo sidii kicinta qaanso-roobeed, isagoo hubinaya inuu la joogo aan laga adkaan karin.

       King AN DƯƠNG loo xilsaaray Cao Lỗ (ama Cao Thông) in la dhiso iskutallaabSaintly Crossbow oo ka mid ah 'Supernaturally Luminous Claw'"(nỏ thần), mid toogasho ah ayaa dishay 300 oo nin.8,18 Sida laga soo xigtay taariikhyahan KW Taylor, isweydaarsiga isweydaarsiga, oo ay weheliso erayga loogu talagalay, waxay umuuqataa in lagu soo kordhiyay Shiinaha ka Dadyowga Austroasiatic koonfurta intii lagu jiray qarnigii saddexaad ama afaraad ee BCE.18 Waxay si dhakhso leh uga mid noqotay Qalabka Shiinaha; Habka kicinta ayaa awood u leh inuu iska caabiyo cadaadiska sare iyo inuu sii daayo fallaar leh xoog ka xoog badan nooc kasta oo qaanso ah. Laba farsamooyin kicinta naxaas ah ayaa lagu qoday gudaha Vietnam; farsamooyinka badankood waxaa laga yaabaa inay ka samaysan yihiin bamboo.

Dagaal lala galay Nanyue

      In 204 BCE, gudaha Panyu (hadda Guangzhou), ZHAO TUO, a u dhashay Zhending,19,20 ee gobolka Zhao (casriga ah Hebei), aasaasay the boqortooyadii Nanyue.21 TAYLOR (1983) wuxuu aaminay xilligii Nanyue iyo U Lạc wada noolaa, U Lạc si ku-meel-gaadh ah u garawsaday suratrainty ee Nanyue, laakiin halkii aad ka bixin lahayd taas Nanyue awood kasta oo dhab ah ka saraysa iyaga, tani waxay si fudud u metelaysa iyaga dareen diidmo-diid ah. Sida xiriirka nabada leh ayuu dib loo soo celiyey, Saameynta Nanyue ka badan U Lạc laabatay. Ciidanka Zhao Tuo abuuray inuu ka soo horjeedo ayuu ayaa hadda diyaar loo ahaa in la geeyo ka dhanka ah U Lạc.22

      Tfaahfaahinta ololaha si dhab ah looma duubin. Zhao TuoDib u dhicii hore iyo guushii ugu dambeysay King An Dương ayaa lagu xusay Diiwaanada Dhulalka Dibadda ee gobolka Jiao.4 Diiwaanka Taariikhyahan weyn midkoodna ma xusin King An Duong ama Dagaalkii millatari ee Zhao Tuo ee ạu Lạc; intaas kadib Dhimashadii Empress Lü (180 BCE), ZHAO TUO wuxuu adeegsaday ciidankiisii ​​oo khatar galiyay wuxuuna u isticmaalay hanti inuu ku laaluusho Minyue, ka Galbeedka Ou, Iyo Luo soo gudbinta.23 Si kastaba ha noqotee, ololuhu wuxuu dhiirrigeliyay halyeey mawduuckiisu yahay wareejinta qaanso-badeedka qunyar-kicinta King An Duong ilaa Zhao Tuo. Sida ku xusan halyeeygan, lahaanshaha qaanso-gacmeedka waxay siisay awoodda siyaasadeed: “Kii awooda inuu qabto iskutallaabtan isweydaarsiga ayaa xukuma boqortooyada; kan aan awoodin inuu qabto qaanso-gacmeedkan ayaa lumi doona. "24,25,26

       Uisagoo ku guuleystay goobta dagaalka, ZHAO TUO wuxuu codsaday xabad joojin wuxuuna diray wiilkiisa Zhong Shi u dhiibid King An Dương inuu u adeego.27,25 Halkaas, isaga iyo Boqorka An Duong gabadhiisa, MỴ CHÂU, jacayl baa dhacay oo waa la guursaday.25,28 Qayb ka mid ah hay'adda matrilocal ayaa ninkeeda uga baahan tahay inuu ku noolaado guriga qoyska xaaskiisa.29 Natiijo ahaan, waxay deganaayeen Maxkamad Duong ah ilaa Zhong Shi ku guuleystey in aan ogaado sirta iyo xeeladaha King An Dương.29 Dhanka kale, King AN DUONG daaweeyay Cao Lỗ xushmad daro, wuuna isaga tagay.30

       ZHONG SHI ayaa lahaa Mỵ Châu tus tusmada isweydaarsiga muqadaska ah, marki uu si qarsoodi ah u badalay kicinta, isaga oo ka takhalusay awoodiisa gaarka ah kana dhigay wax aan faa'iido lahayn.28 Kadib wuxuu weydiistey inuu ku laabto aabihiis, kaas oo markaas bilaabay weerar cusub U Lạc markana laga adkaaday King An Dương.29 Taariikhda ayaa xustay, guuldaradiisii, Boqorka wuxuu ku booday badda si uu isku dilo. Noocyada qaar, waxaa loo sheegay qoolleyda khiyaanadiisa gabadhiisa wuxuuna ku dilay gabadhiisa khayaanadeeda ka hor inta uusan is dilin. Halyeey, si kastaba ha noqotee, wuxuu muujinayaa in qoolley dahab ah ay ka soo baxday biyaha oo ay ku hagtay aagga biyaha.25 Waxa kale oo jirta dhaqan ah in King u cararay koonfurta ilaa maanta Nghệ Gobol Gobol ah, dhisida qalcad cusub wuxuuna xukumayay ilaa dhimashadiisa.31

        From natiijooyinka qadiimiga ah ee Cổ Loa, waa macquul in teknoolojiyada militari ee ka Dowladaha Dagaal waxaa loo wareejiyay gobolka isagoo wata hub fara badan oo u dhigma ciidamada casriga ah Shiinaha, oo soo jeedinaysa in isweydaarsiga sarraysa ee dabiiciga ahi uu ahaa "ciidan nooc cusub ah”Tababaray oo amrey Cao Thông, kaas oo ahaa “waxtar dambe ma lehIyada oo aan la faraynin.32

Legacy

     Vtaariikhyahanada reer iitnamese caadi ahaan u aragtaa dhacdooyinka ugu waaweyn ee xilligan inay xidido ku leeyihiin xaqiiqda taariikhiga ah. Si kastaba ha noqotee, fasiraadda iyo dib-u-heshiisiinta taariikhda xilligaas ayaa lagu dejiyay, mararka qaarkoodna laga soo horjeedo, taariikhda tarjumaada Soofiyeedka taariikhda.33 The caasimada King An Dương, CỔ LOA, waxay ahayd xaruntii ugu horeysay ee siyaasadeed ee Ilbaxnimadii Fiyetnaam xilligii Siniiqa ka hor.12 Goobtu waxay ka kooban tahay laba qaybood oo banaanka kore ah iyo qalcad gudaha ka ah, oo qaab muuqaal ah. Moatsku wuxuu ka kooban yahay togag taxane ah, oo ay ku jiraan Webiga Hoang Giang iyo shabakad harooyin bixiya Cổ Loa leh ilaalin iyo hagis.34 Kim qiyaasey dadka ku nool Co Loa laga yaabaa inay u dhexeyso 5,000 ilaa 10,000 oo qof.35

tixraacyada

  1. TAYLOR 1983, p. 19.
  2. TERRY F. KLEEMAN 1998, p. 24.
  3. O'HARROW 1979, p. 148.
  4. Sida ku xusan Faallada Li Daoyuan ku saabsan Biyaha Caadiga ah, Vol. 37
  5. Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục (欽 定 越 史 通 鑑 綱 目)
  6. OÀO DUY ANH 2016, p. 30.
  7. OÀO DUY ANH 2016, p. 29.
  8. KELLEY 2014, p. 88.
  9. OÀO DUY ANH 2016, p. 31.
  10. DEMATTÈ 2015, p. 622-624.
  11. TAYLOR 2013, p. 14.
  12. MIKSIC & YIAN 2016, p. 111.
  13. MIKSIC & YIAN 2016, p. 156.
  14. KIM, LAI & TRINH 2010, p. 1013.
  15. KIM 2020, p. 231.
  16. NGÔ SĨ LIÊN et al., Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư "Mid Daran”Xigasho:“ 王 於 是 築 城 于 越 裳 , 廣 千 丈 , 盤 旋 如 螺 形 故 號 螺 城 ”:" quBoqorka ayaa markaa ka dhisay qalcadda Việt Thường, oo ballaadhkeedu dhan yahay kun-zhàng, wareegaaya oo wareegaya sida qaabka conch. Sidaa darteed, waxaa loogu magac daray Conch Citadel. "
  17. KIERNAN, BEN (2017). Việt Nam: waa taariikh soo martay xilliyadii ugu horreeyay ilaa hadda. Jaamacadda Oxford Press. bog. 34.
  18. TAYLOR 1983, p. 21.
  19. WATSON 1961, p. 239.
  20. YU 1986, p. 451-452.
  21. LOEWE 1986, p. 128.
  22. TAYLOR 1983, p. 24.
  23. WATSON 1961, p. 241.
  24. NAM C. KIM 2015, p. 5.
  25. TAYLOR 1983, p. 25.
  26. GEORGE E. DUTTON 2006, p. 70.
  27. CULUS 2001, p. 193.
  28. KELLEY 2014, p. 89.
  29. TAYLOR 2013, p. 15.
  30. TAYLOR 2013, p. 16.
  31. TAYLOR 1983, p. 317.
  32. TAYLOR 2013, p. 16-17.
  33. PATRICIA M. PELLEY - Gumeysiga Fiyatnaam: Taariikhda Cusub ee Taariikhihii Qaranka - Bogga 50 2002 “kuwaas oo inbadan ku tiirsanaa shaqada Lenin - gaar ahaan Trần Quốc Vượng, Hà Văn Tấn, iyo Phan Huy L published - waxay daabaceen laba daraasadood oo carqaladeyn ah, Communism Primitive iyo The History of Feudalism, oo ay si muuqata uga joojiyeen pro ..sii wadida tooska ah shuuciyaddii aasaasiga ahayd ee feudalism. Waxaa dhiirrigeliyay sheegashooyinka Lenin ee ku saabsan waddamada Slavic, taariikhyahanno ka tirsan jaamacadda ayaa ku adkaystay in laga bilaabo boqorradii Hùng iyo boqortooyadii Văn Lang… intii lagu jiray xukunkii An Dương Vương, oo xukumi jiray boqortooyada Âu Lạc, iyo heerarkii hore ee Qabsashada Shiinaha (laga bilaabo 2879 BC ilaa 43 AD, si kale haddii loo dhigo) bulshada reer Vietnam waxay ku saleysneyd shuuciyaddii hore "
  34. HIGHAM 1996, p. 122.
  35. KIM 2015, p. 219-220.

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FAALADA :
Urces Ilo wareedyo:  wikipedia.com.
Title Cinwaanka cinwaanka, xigashooyinka, farta waaweyn, geesinimada leh, qoraallada farta lagu fiiqo, muuqaalka sepia ee muuqaalka leh waxaa dejiyay Ban Tu Thư - thanhdiavietnamhoc.com

BAN TU THƯ
6 / 2021

(Booqday jeer 321, booqashooyinka 1 maanta)
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